Factores que afectan la ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores hospitalizados: una revisión narrativa

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v6n4.563

Palabras clave:

Anciano, Dieta, Ingesta de alimentos, Deficiencia de proteína, Hospitalización

Resumen

Introducción: la desnutrición se asocia con una mayor estancia hospitalaria, tasas de reingreso y riesgo de mortalidad, especialmente en adultos mayores. 

Objetivo: identificar los factores que afectan la ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores hospitalizados. 

Justificación: promover nuevas estrategias en la terapia nutricional hospitalaria en pacientes adultos mayores a través de la identificación de los factores que afectan la ingesta de alimentos de acuerdo con la revisión del presente estudio. 

Material y métodos: búsqueda sistemática de estudios publicados en las bases de datos de Springer Link, Medline y Scopus a través de la plataforma PubMed en mayo de 2022, con una temporalidad de 20 años. Se buscaron por términos controlados como: anciano, dieta, ingestión de alimentos, consumo de alimentos, deficiencia de proteína y hospitalización. 

Resultados: se encontraron 4508 artículos en inglés, de los cuales se seleccionaron 28 para el análisis del texto completo debido al cumplimiento de criterios de selección. 

Conclusiones: el estado nutricional en adultos mayores hospitalizados presenta afectaciones por factores como la enfermedad, la reducción de la actividad física, la fatiga, la depresión y la presencia de síntomas como náuseas y vómitos, la alteración en el proceso de masticación y deglución, y presentar un menor nivel educativo. Los factores dietéticos y de servicio que se relacionan con la baja ingesta son la temperatura de la dieta, la textura, el sabor y la apariencia, así como el mismo entorno hospitalario. 

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Biografía del autor/a

Ricardo Alfonso Merchán Chaverra, Clinica Universitaria Colombia

Clinica Universitaria Colombia

Bogotá, Colombia

Citas

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Publicado

2023-11-09

Cómo citar

García Campos, V. ., Bejarano-Roncancio, J. J., Pinzón Ospina , C. ., Medina-Parra, J. ., Cuéllar-Fernández, Y. M., Durán-Agüero, S. ., & Merchán Chaverra, R. A. (2023). Factores que afectan la ingesta de alimentos en adultos mayores hospitalizados: una revisión narrativa. Revista De Nutrición Clínica Y Metabolismo, 6(4). https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v6n4.563

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