Revisión narrativa del papel de la glutamina en la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes patologías

Autores/as

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v5n4.434

Palabras clave:

Glutamina, Aminoácidos, Farmaconutriente, Suplementos

Resumen

 

 Las proteínas son un componente principal en el mantenimiento de las funciones y las estructuras de las células. La pérdida de proteína corporal se asocia con numerosas alteraciones patológicas y con un aumento de la mortalidad. La glutamina es el aminoácido más abundante del organismo y está implicado en numerosos procesos del metabolismo. Aunque históricamente se ha clasificado como un aminoácido no esencial, debido a que puede ser sintetizado por el organismo, existen ciertas situaciones, como la sepsis, que progresan con una depleción de glutamina, por lo que se ha considerado como condicionalmente esencial. La glutamina tiene multitud de funciones en diferentes tejidos y destaca la desintoxicación de amoníaco y el aporte de energía. Los niveles bajos de glutamina se relacionan con alteraciones en la función inmune, con cambios en la estructura y función de la mucosa intestinal, y disminución de la capacidad antioxidante, entre otros. La suplementación con glutamina, tanto por vía enteral como parenteral, ha sido muy estudiada en el ámbito clínico y en los últimos años ha dado resultados contradictorios. La evidencia sobre sus beneficios en la prevención y el tratamiento de las diferentes patologías está en continua evolución. Resultan prometedores algunos estudios que analizan su papel en el cáncer, la diabetes y la enfermedad inflamatoria intestinal, entre otras. Quedan varias cuestiones pendientes por resolver, como definir los subgrupos de pacientes que pueden beneficiarse más de su uso, la dosis adecuada para cada uno de ellos y la vía de administración. 

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Publicado

2022-12-08

Cómo citar

López Pérez, A., Perales Pascual, J., Escolano Pueyo, Ángel, López Pérez, M., & Serrano Vicente, C. (2022). Revisión narrativa del papel de la glutamina en la prevención y el tratamiento de diferentes patologías. Revista De Nutrición Clínica Y Metabolismo, 5(4). https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v5n4.434