Nitratos y nitritos, la doble cara de la moneda

  • Mateo Londoño Pereira Universidad de Antioquia
  • Briana Davahiva Gómez Ramírez
Palabras clave: Nitratos, Nitritos, Óxido nítrico, Nitrosaminas, Alimentos, Evaluación en salud

Resumen

Los nitratos y nitritos son compuestos químicos inorgánicos derivados del nitrógeno, que se encuentran naturalmente en alimentos vegetales y de manera adicionada en algunos productos cárnicos procesados. Su presencia en la dieta se ha relacionado históricamente con un alto riesgo de desarrollar cáncer en diferentes tejidos debido a su capacidad de transformarse en N-nitrosaminas, altamente carcinogénicas. El objetivo de este artículo es revisar el impacto que tiene para la salud humana la ingesta de nitratos y nitritos alimentarios, en relación con su procedencia de fuentes naturales o de productos procesados a los que han sido añadidos como aditivos químicos.

Descargas

La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.

Citas

Kalaycıoğlu Z, Erim FB. Nitrate and Nitrites in Foods: Worldwide Regional Distribution in View of Their Risks and Benefits. J Agric Food Chem. 2019;67(26):7205-22. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.9b01194.

Hord NG, Tang Y, Bryan NS. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits. Am J Clin Nutr. 2009;90(1):1-10. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27131.

Bryan NS. Nitrites and Nitrates. En: Caballero B, Finglas P, Toldra F (editores). Encyclopedia of Food and Health. Elsevier; 2016. p. 73-78. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00484-0.

Iammarino M, Di Taranto A, Cristino M. Monitoring of nitrites and nitrates levels in leafy vegetables (spinach and lettuce): a contribution to risk assessment. J Sci Food Agric. 2014;94(4):773-8. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.6439.

Bedale W, Sindelar JJ, Milkowski AL. Dietary nitrate and nitrite: Benefits, risks, and evolving perceptions. Meat Sci. 2016;120:85-92. doi: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2016.03.009.

Raczuk J, Wadas W, Głozak K. Nitrates and nitrites in selected vegetables purchased at supermarkets in Siedlce, Poland. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig. 2014;65(1):15-20.

Griesenbeck JS, Steck MD, Huber JC, Sharkey JR, Rene AA, Brender JD. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire. Nutr J. 2009;8:16. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-8-16.

Karwowska M, Kononiuk A. Nitrates/Nitrites in Food—Risk for Nitrosative Stress and Benefits. Antioxidants. 2020;9(3):241. doi: 10.3390/antiox9030241.

Ward MH, Jones RR, Brender JD, de Kok TM, Weyer PJ, Nolan BT, et al. Drinking Water Nitrate and Human Health: An Updated Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018;15(7):1557. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15071557.

Habermeyer M, Eisenbrand G. N-Nitroso Compounds in Foods. En: Varelis P, Melton L, Shahidi F. Encyclopedia of Food Chemistry. Elsevier; 2019. p. 593-602. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-08-100596-5.21824-6.

NTC 1325: Productos cárnicos procesados no enlatados [Internet]. ICONTEC; 2008 [Fecha de consulta: 10 de junio de 2020]. Disponible en: https://tienda.icontec.org/gp-industrias-alimentarias-productos-carnicos-procesados-no-enlatados-ntc1325-2008.html.

Zeilmaker MJ, Bakker MI, Schothorst R, Slob W. Risk Assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine Formed Endogenously after Fish-with-Vegetable Meals. Toxicol Sci. 2010;116(1):323-35. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfq093.

Nitrites and nitrates added to food [Internet]. EFSA; 2017 [Fecha de consulta: 10 de mayo de 2020]. Disponible en: https://www.efsa.europa.eu/sites/default/files/corporate_publications/files/nitrates-nitrites-170614.pdf.

Robles H. Nitrosamines. En: Wexler P. Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Elsevier; 2014. p. 584-5. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-386454-3.00523-6.

Konstantinou E, Fotopoulou F, Drosos A, Dimakopoulou N, Zagoriti Z, Niarchos A, et al. Tobacco-specific nitrosamines: A literature review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018;118:198-203. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.05.008.

Bryan NS. An Overview of Nitrite and Nitrate. En: Bagchi D. Sustained Energy for Enhanced Human Functions and Activity. Elsevier; 2017. p. 53-65. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-805413-0.00003-X.

Lundberg JO, Weitzberg E, Cole JA, Benjamin N. Nitrate, bacteria and human health. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2(7):593-602. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro929.

Doel JJ, Benjamin N, Hector MP, Rogers M, Allaker RP. Evaluation of bacterial nitrate reduction in the human oral cavity. Eur J Oral Sci. 2005;113(1):14-9. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0722.2004.00184.x.

Bondonno CP, Blekkenhorst LC, Liu AH, Bondonno NP, Ward NC, Croft KD, et al. Vegetable-derived bioactive nitrate and cardiovascular health. Mol Aspects Med. 2018;61:83-91. doi: 10.1016/j.mam.2017.08.001.

Pannala AS, Mani AR, Spencer JPE, Skinner V, Bruckdorfer KR, Moore KP, et al. The effect of dietary nitrate on salivary, plasma, and urinary nitrate metabolism in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003;34(5):576-84. doi: 10.1016/s0891-5849(02)01353-9.

Hunault CC, van Velzen AG, Sips AJAM, Schothorst RC, Meulenbelt J. Bioavailability of sodium nitrite from an aqueous solution in healthy adults. Toxicol Lett. 2009;190(1):48-53. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2009.06.865.

Bryan NS, Alexander DD, Coughlin JR, Milkowski AL, Boffetta P. Ingested nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer risk: An updated review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2012;50(10):3646-65. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2012.07.062.

Chan TYK. Vegetable-borne nitrate and nitrite and the risk of methaemoglobinaemia. Toxicol Lett. 2011;200(1-2):107-8. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2010.11.002.

Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Ghasemi A, Kabir A, Azizi F, Hadaegh F. Is dietary nitrate/nitrite exposure a risk factor for development of thyroid abnormality? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Nitric Oxide. 2015;47:65-76. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2015.04.002.

Shannon OM, Stephan BCM, Minihane A-M, Mathers JC, Siervo M. Nitric Oxide Boosting Effects of the Mediterranean Diet: A Potential Mechanism of Action. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2018;73(7):902-4. doi: 10.1093/gerona/gly087.

Schwingshackl L, Schwedhelm C, Galbete C, Hoffmann G. Adherence to Mediterranean Diet and Risk of Cancer: An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017;9(10):1063. doi: 10.3390/nu9101063.

Kapil V, Webb AJ, Ahluwalia A. Inorganic nitrate and the cardiovascular system. Heart. 2010;96(21):1703-9. doi: 10.1136/hrt.2009.180372.

Rathod KS, Velmurugan S, Ahluwalia A. A ‘green’ diet-based approach to cardiovascular health? Is inorganic nitrate the answer? Mol Nutr Food Re. 2016;60(1):185-202. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201500313.

Ashworth A, Mitchell K, Blackwell JR, Vanhatalo A, Jones AM. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(14):2669-78. doi: 10.1017/S1368980015000038.

Sobko T, Marcus C, Govoni M, Kamiya S. Dietary nitrate in Japanese traditional foods lowers diastolic blood pressure in healthy volunteers. Nitric Oxide. 2010;22(2):136-40. doi: 10.1016/j.niox.2009.10.007.

Hobbs DA, George TW, Lovegrove JA. The effects of dietary nitrate on blood pressure and endothelial function: a review of human intervention studies. Nutr Res Rev. 2013;26(2):210-22. doi: 10.1017/S0954422413000188.

Siervo M, Lara J, Ogbonmwan I, Mathers JC. Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Nutr. 2013;143(6):818-26. doi: 10.3945/jn.112.170233.

Coles LT, Clifton PM. Effect of beetroot juice on lowering blood pressure in free-living, disease-free adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutr J. 2012;11:106. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-11-106.

Farah C, Michel LYM, Balligand J-L. Nitric oxide signalling in cardiovascular health and disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2018;15(5):292-316. doi: 10.1038/nrcardio.2017.224.

Tarkin JM, Kaski JC. Vasodilator Therapy: Nitrates and Nicorandil. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2016;30(4):367-78. doi: 10.1007/s10557-016-6668-z.

Menezes EF, Peixoto LG, Teixeira RR, Justino AB, Puga GM, Espindola FS. Potential Benefits of Nitrate Supplementation on Antioxidant Defense System and Blood Pressure Responses after Exercise Performance. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019;2019:7218936. doi: 10.1155/2019/7218936.

Cossenza M, Socodato R, Portugal CC, Domith ICL, Gladulich LFH, Encarnação TG, et al. Nitric Oxide in the Nervous System: Biochemical, Developmental, and Neurobiological Aspects. Vitam Horm. 2014;96:79-125. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-800254-4.00005-2.

Huang Z, Fu J, Zhang Y. Nitric Oxide Donor-Based Cancer Therapy: Advances and Prospects. J Med Chem. 2017;60(18):7617-35. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.6b01672.

Maher A, Rahman MFA, Gad MZ. The Role of Nitric Oxide from Neurological Disease to Cancer. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2017;1007:71-88. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-60733-7_5.

Publicado
2020-11-02
Cómo citar
Londoño Pereira, M., & Gómez Ramírez, B. (2020). Nitratos y nitritos, la doble cara de la moneda. Revista De Nutrición Clínica Y Metabolismo, 4(1). https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v4n1.202
Sección
Artículos de revisión