El Papel de la actividad física y el ejercicio en la obesidad

Palabras clave: obesidad, salud pública, metabolismo energético, ejercicio


en los últimos años la obesidad en niños y adultos ha aumentado. La mejor estrategia para el control de esta enfermedad es el manejo médico-nutricional donde la actividad física tiene un papel importante. Sin embargo, todavía existen controversias sobre su impacto en la pérdida y el control del peso corporal


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.


Departamento de la Prosperidad Social. Instituto Colombiano de Bienestar Familiar. ENSIN: Encuesta Nacional de la Situación Nutricional [Internet]. Colombia; 2015 [Fecha de consulta:20 Julio de 2019]. Disponible en https://www.icbf.gov.co/bienestar/nutricion/encuesta-nacional-situacion-nutricional.

Organización de la Naciones Unidas. Más hambrientos y más obesos en América Latina en medio de la desigualdad [Internet]. Noviembre 7 de 2018. [Consultado: 20 de julio de 2019]. Disponible en https://news.un.org/es/story/2018/11/1445101

Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors for Chronic Diseases Collaboration (BMI Mediated Effects), Lu Y, Hajifathalian K, Ezzati M, Woodward M, Rimm EB, et al. Metabolic mediators of the effects of body-mass index, overweight, and obesity on coronary heart disease and stroke: a pooled analysis of 97 prospective cohorts with 1.8 million participants. Lancet. 2014; 383(9921):970-83.

McGee DL. Body mass index and mortality: a meta-analysis based on person-level data from twenty-six observational studies. Ann Epidemiol. 2005;15(2):87-97.

Basdevant A, Aron-Wisnewski J, Clément K. Définitions des obésités. Traité Médecine et Chirurgie de l’obésite. Médecine Sciences Publications. Lavoisier; 2011. p. 3‐8.

LaMonte MJ, Blair SN. Physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and adiposity: contributions to disease risk. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2006; 9(5): 540–6.

Wiklund P. The role of physical activity and exercise in obesity and weight management: Time for critical appraisal. J Sport Health Sci. 2016; 5(2): 151-4.

Ng M, Fleming T, Robinson M, Thomson B, Graetz N, Margono C, et al. Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980–2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014; 384(9945): 766-81.

Blair SN, Archer E, Hand GA. Commentary: Luke and Cooper are wrong: physical activity has a crucial role in weight management and determinants of obesity. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42(6):1836-8.

Hill JO, Peters JC. Commentary: physical activity and weight control. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42(6):1840-2.

Luke A, Cooper RS. Physical activity does not influence obesity risk: time to clarify the public health message. Int J Epidemiol. 2013; 42(6):1831–6.

Westerterp KR. Assessment of physical activity: a critical appraisal. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2009; 105(6): 823-8.

Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, Ard JD, Comuzzie AG, Donato KA, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society. Circulation. 2014; 129(25 Suppl 2): S102-38.

Carneiro IP, Elliott SA, Siervo M, Padwal R, Bertoli S, Battezzati A, et al. Is Obesity Associated with Altered Energy Expenditure? Adv Nutr. 2016;7(3): 476-87.

Di Renzo L, Del Gobbo V, Bigioni M, Premrov MG, Cianci R, De Lorenzo A. Body composition analyses in normal weight obese women. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2006;10(4):191-6.

Prado CM, Siervo M, Mire E, Heymsfield SB, Stephan BC, Broyles S, et al. A population-based approach to define body-composition phenotypes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(6):1369-77.

Baumgartner RN. Body composition in healthy aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2000; 904: 437-48.

Ward J. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity: is it time the health system accepted fitness of older people as a health responsibility? Australas J Ageing. 2011;30(2): 61–2.

Prado CM, Wells JC, Smith SR, Stephan BC, Siervo M. Sarcopenic obesity: a critical appraisal of the current evidence. Clin Nutr. 2012; 31(5):583-601.

Prado CM, Heymsfield SB. Lean tissue imaging: a new era for nutritional assessment and intervention. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2014; 38(8): 940–53.

Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Stratégie sur l’activité physique pour la Région européenne de l’OMS 2016-2025 [Internet]. Comité Régional de L´europe Soixante-Cinquiéme Session ;14-17 septembre 2015. [Consultado el : 1 de Agosto de 2019] Disponible en http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/283807/65wd09f_PhysicalActivityStrategy_150474_withCover.pdf.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Yardley JE, Riddell MC, Dunstan DW, Dempsey PC, et al. Physical activity/exercise and diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association. Diabetes Care. 2016;39(11):2065–79.

Handelsman Y, Bloomgarden ZT, Grunberger G, Umpierrez G, Zimmerman RS, Bailey TS, et al. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology- clinical practice guidelines for developing a diabetes mellitus comprehensive care plan-2015. Endocr Pract. 2015; 21(Suppl 1):1-87.

Cox CE. Role of Physical Activity for Weight Loss and Weight Maintenance. Diabetes Spectr. 2017; 30(3):157-60.

Franz MJ, VanWormer JJ, Crain AL, Boucher JL, Histon T, Caplan W, et al. Weight-loss outcomes: a systematic review and Meta-analysis of weight-loss clinical trials with a minimum 1-year follow-up. J Am Diet Assoc. 2007;107(10):1755-67.

Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, Martin CK, Alfonso A, Smith SR, Ravussin E, et al. Effects of calorie restriction with or without exercise on body composition and fat distribution. J Clin Endorcrinol Metab. 2007;92(3):865-72.

Weiss EP, Jordan RC, Frese EM, Albert Sg, Villareal DT. Effects of weight loss on lean mass, strength, bone and aerobic capacity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017;49(1):206-17.

Donnelly JE, Honas JJ, Smith BK, Mayo MS, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, et al. Aerobic exercise alone results in clinically significant weight loss for men and women: Midwest Exercise Trial 2. Obesity( Silver Spring). 2013;21(3):E219–E28.

Colberg SR, Sigal RJ, Fernhall B, Regensteiner JG, Blissmer BJ, Rubin RR, et al. Exercise and type 2 diabetes: the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Diabetes Association: joint position statement. Diabetes Care. 2010;33(12): e147-67.

Schoeller DA, Shay K, Kushner RF. How much physical activity is needed to minimize weight gain in previously obese women? Am J Clin Nutr. 1997; 66(3): 551–6

Fogelholm M, Kukkonen-Harjula K. Does physical activity prevent weight gain: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2000; 1(2): 95–111.

Moholdt T, Wisløff U, Lydersen S, Nauman J. Current physical activity guidelines for health are insufficient to mitigate long-term weight gain: more data in the fitness versus fatness debate (The HUNT study, Norway). Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(20):1489-96.

Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. Lancet. 2012;380(9838):219‐29.

Raguso CA, Spada A, Jornayvaz FR, Philippe J. L’activité physique dans la prévention et le contrôle du diabète. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3(114).

Gallois P, Vallée JP, Le Noc Y. L’activité physique: pourquoi? pour qui? comment la prescrire? Médecine. 2006;2(1):20‐4.

Manson JE, Greenland P, LaCroix AZ, Stefanick ML, Mouton CP, Oberman A, et al. Walking Compared with Vigorous Exercise for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Women. N Engl J Med. 2002;347(10):716‐25.

Recker RR, Davies KM, Hinders SM, Heaney RP, Stegman MR, Kimmel DB. Bone gain in young adult women. JAMA. 1992;268(17):2403‐8.

Depiesse F, Cayrac C. Ostéoporose et activité physique. En: F. Depiesse, O. Coste. Prescription des activités physiques: en prévention et en thérapeutique. 2nd Edition. Elsevier Masson; 2016. p.159‐94.

Chan AT, Giovannucci EL. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer. Gastroenterology. 2010;138(6):2029‐2043.e10.

Conn VS. Anxiety outcomes after physical activity interventions: meta-analysis findings. Nurs Res. 2010;59(3):224–31.

Pedersen BK, Steensberg A, Fischer C, Keller C, Keller P, Plomgaard P, et al. Searching for the exercise factor: Is IL-6 a candidate? J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2003; 24(2-3):113-9.

León-Ariza HH, Mendoza-Navarrete MP, Maldonado-Arango MI, Botero-Rosas DA. Miocinas y regulación metabólica, una revisión sistemática. Apunts Med L´Esport. 2018; 53(200):155-62.

León HH, Melo CE, Ramírez JF. Role of the myokines production through the exercise. J Sport Heal Res. 2012;4(2):157-66.

Pedersen BK, Febbraio MA. Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as secretory organ. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2012;8(8):457-65.

Norrbom J, Sundberg CJ, Ameln H, Kraus WE, Jansson E, Gustafsson T . PGC-1alpha mRNA expression is influenced by metabolic perturbation in exercising human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96(1):189-94.

da Silva AP, Maia TC, Silva DC, et al. Prevalence of overwight and obesity and associated factors in school children and adolescents in a medium sized Brazilian city. Clinics 2018;73:e438.

World Health Organization (WHO). Guidelines on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour and Sleep for Children under 5 years of age. WHO 2019.

Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, [Internet]. 2nd edition 2018 [Consultado: 1 de Agosto de 2019]. Disponible en. https://health.gov/paguidelines/second-edition/pdf/Physical_Activity_Guidelines_2nd_edition.pdf

Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Recomendaciones mundiales de actividad sobre la actividad física en la salud. [Internet]. OMS 2010 [Consultado: 1 de Agosto de 2019]. Disponible en: https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/factsheet_recommendations/es/

Kleinman R, Greer F, editors. Pediatric Obesity. In: Pediatric Nutrition, AAP 7th edition 2014.

Corkins MR, Balint J, Bobo E, Plogsted S, Yaworski JA, editors. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome. In: The ASPEN Pediatric Nutrition Support Core Curriculum, 2a edition 2015.

Cómo citar
Cárdenas, D., Montealegre Páez, A. L., & Ladino, L. (2019). El Papel de la actividad física y el ejercicio en la obesidad. Revista De Nutrición Clínica Y Metabolismo, 2(2). https://doi.org/10.35454/rncm.v2n2.009
Artículos de revisión